What are Artesian Wells?

An Artesian Wells is a well where water rises under pressure, naturally. Groundwater in some aquifers is confined between an upper and lower impermeable soil layer but the aquifer recharge source is located at a higher elevation which pressurizes the groundwater within the aquifer.  If the pressure/piezometric level of the groundwater is above the ground surface, this is known as an artesian aquifer or condition.  Constructing wells in artesian aquifers is extremely difficult as the groundwater flowing up the borehole towards the ground surface makes installation of the borehole seal at the upper confining layer very difficult.  Maintaining hydraulic equilibrium of the borehole (i.e. no groundwater flow) during seal installation allows the seal to cure and eventually hold back the pressure of the aquifer.  One way to create hydraulic equilibrium in the borehole is to raise the casing above the ground surface up to a level where the groundwater stops flowing over the edge of the casing. Malcolm has over 6 decades of experience and can handle all types of artesian wells and difficult conditions.